Pedersen for their work in this area.
In the s, supramolecular chemistry improved. James Fraser Stoddart developed molecular machinery and highly complex self-assembled structures. Itamar Willner developed sensors and methods of electronic and biological interfacing. During this period, electrochemical and photochemical features were added supramolecular systems. Research began into synthetic self-replicating systems. Work began on molecular information processing devices. The emerging science of nanotechnology also had a strong influence on the subject.
Building blocks such as fullerenes , nanoparticles , and dendrimers became involved in synthetic systems. Supramolecular chemistry deals with subtle interactions, and consequently control over the processes involved can require great precision. In particular, noncovalent bonds have low energies and often no activation energy for formation. As demonstrated by the Arrhenius equation , this means that, unlike in covalent bond-forming chemistry, the rate of bond formation is not increased at higher temperatures. In fact, chemical equilibrium equations show that the low bond energy results in a shift towards the breaking of supramolecular complexes at higher temperatures.
However, low temperatures can also be problematic to supramolecular processes. Supramolecular chemistry can require molecules to distort into thermodynamically disfavored conformations for example during the "slipping" synthesis of rotaxanes. Supramolecular chemistry may include some covalent chemistry.
In addition, the dynamic nature of supramolecular chemistry is utilized in many systems for example, molecular mechanics , and cooling the system would slow these processes. Thus, thermodynamics is an important tool to design, control, and study supramolecular chemistry. Perhaps the most striking example is that of warm-blooded biological systems, which can only operate within a very narrow temperature range.
The molecular environment around a supramolecular system is also of prime importance to its operation and stability. Many solvents have strong hydrogen bonding , electrostatic, and charge-transfer capabilities, and are therefore able to become involved in complex equilibria with the system, even breaking complexes completely. For this reason, the choice of solvent can be critical.
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- Supramolecular Chemistry?
Molecular self-assembly is the construction of systems without guidance or management from an outside source other than to provide a suitable environment. The molecules are directed to assemble through noncovalent interactions. Self-assembly may be subdivided into intermolecular self-assembly to form a supramolecular assembly , and intramolecular self-assembly or folding as demonstrated by foldamers and polypeptides. Molecular self-assembly also allows the construction of larger structures such as micelles , membranes , vesicles , liquid crystals , and is important to crystal engineering.
Molecular recognition is the specific binding of a guest molecule to a complementary host molecule to form a host-guest complex. Often, the definition of which species is the "host" and which is the "guest" is arbitrary. The molecules are able to identify each other using noncovalent interactions.
Key applications of this field are the construction of molecular sensors and catalysis. Molecular recognition and self-assembly may be used with reactive species in order to pre-organize a system for a chemical reaction to form one or more covalent bonds. This is a special case of supramolecular catalysis. Noncovalent bonds between the reactants and a "template" hold the reactive sites of the reactants close together, facilitating the desired chemistry. This can be useful where the desired reaction conformation is thermodynamically or kinetically unlikely, such as in the preparation of large macrocycles.
This pre-organization also serves purposes such as minimizing side reactions , lowering the activation energy of the reaction, and producing desired stereochemistry. After the reaction has taken place, the template may remain in place, be forcibly removed, or may be "automatically" decomplexed on account of the different recognition properties of the reaction product.
The annual meeting of the Astronomische Gesellschaft in Cologne, June , featured extensive reviews of The annual meeting of the Astronomische Gesellschaft in Cologne, June , featured extensive reviews of the chemical processes relevant to astrophysics. Functional Phthalocyanine Molecular Materials. Knops, N.
Supramolecular chemistry - New World Encyclopedia
Sendhoff, H. Mekelburger, F. Ostrowicki, E. Koepp, F. Dohm, F. Molecular Organometallic Materials for Optics. Di Bella, C. Dragonetti, M.
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Pizzotti, D. Roberto, F. Tessore, R. Ugo: Coordination and Humphrey, M. Cifuentes, M. Springer Berlin Heidelberg.
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Specifically: Changing approaches to Synthetic Supramolecular Chemistry research are accelerating the pace at which disruptive approaches and outputs can be applied in related areas e. Over the Delivery Plan period, the community should therefore continue to seek out new opportunities and areas where supramolecular chemistry can be truly transformative without eroding the novelty and creativity of the core discipline Synthetic Supramolecular Chemistry is an area where the UK exhibits real strength in its number of internationally recognised established-career leaders.
A small number of young leaders are also emerging in areas where supramolecular chemistry interfaces with other research areas e. We will therefore work with the community to address the balance of researchers across the career pipeline by focusing on the development of early-career researchers in Synthetic Supramolecular Chemistry. Highlights :.